Ovarian Cancer Signs and Symptoms

Ovarian cancer is known as a “disease that whispers” because, while symptoms do exist, they’re often vague and mimic other conditions.

According to the National Ovarian Cancer Coalition, ovarian cancer is the leading cause of gynecological cancer-related deaths among women between the ages of 35 and 74. It’s known as a “disease that whispers” because, while symptoms do exist, they’re often vague and mimic other conditions.

Knowing your risk factors, and understanding the signs and symptoms of the disease, can help women reduce risk and improve their chances for survival.


The best way to defend yourself

With cancer, early detection is paramount to saving lives, and awareness is one of the most important factors in this. Because ovarian cancer’s symptoms can be hard to detect, it’s important to pay attention to your body, know the signs and symptoms, and talk to your doctor if you have any concerns.

The most common symptoms of ovarian cancer, as determined by a study funded by the Rivkin Center, are:

  • Bloating
  • Pelvic or abdominal pain
  • Difficulty eating or feeling full quickly
  • Urinary symptoms (urgency or frequency)

Less commonly, some women also experience these symptoms:

  • Constipation
  • Lack of energy
  • Vaginal bleeding
  • Nausea, diarrhea

If you notice symptoms, take action immediately

These could be symptoms of ovarian cancer, or they could be caused by other, less serious conditions. If you notice these potential ovarian cancer symptoms-especially several at once-and they persist for two to three weeks, it’s extremely important to check with your doctor or gynecologist. Remember: early detection is key in the fight against ovarian cancer.

What happens next?

Tests for ovarian cancers include combination pelvic/rectal exam, CA 125 blood test, and a transvaginal ultrasound. A Pap smear is not a test for ovarian cancer. The Mayo Clinic offers a description of the various tests performed in diagnosing ovarian cancer.

If you or your doctor suspect ovarian cancer, consult a gynecologic oncologist.


Know the risk factors for ovarian cancer

Although there’s no way to know who will get ovarian cancer, some women are at higher risk, often related to their genetic makeup and family background. Knowing risk factors can help you become more aware of your personal health and be alert for possible signs and symptoms of the disease. Here are some excellent resources:

  • For starters, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has a basic list of risk factors
  • For more complete information, try the National Cancer Institute, part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the United States government’s principal agency for cancer research. Their website, cancer.gov, provides a wealth of information, including this comprehensive list of risk factors for ovarian cancer.


Learn about the specific pathologies and stages

There are many respectable organizations that provide information about and support for people who have ovarian cancer. We recommend these as references for learning more about the disease.

Types of ovarian cancer

“Ovarian cancer” is an umbrella term for several different types of cancer. These resources can help you understand the distinctions.

Stages of ovarian cancer

Describing cancer in stages provides a framework for understanding how widely it has spread throughout the body. These are good resources for understanding staging and the details of each stage of ovarian cancer:

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